Category Archives: Art

Lookdev of 3 scenes

On 2017 08 09, I rendered this for the Slidewalk lookdev.

Slidewalk lookdev

 

Last night (early morning) I finished the Sub-Rail lookdev:

Sub-Rail lookdev

Looking back at my basement lookdev:

It’s quite apparent that the style has changed a bit. The environments are a bit different in scale and focus and this is probably one reason why the style has moved places.

Analysing the three renders

  • The basement scene is the most ‘cartoony’:
    1. Mainly shaded by AO. The AO is strictly controlled on a per element basis. Some don’t have AO at all.
    2. There is an ambient that gives a base cool colour.
    3. Then there are individual space lights.
    4. Parametric shading (eg pipes) is tightly controlled
    5. Textures are made contrasty to enhance the ‘cartoony’ look. Textures are also posterised, and colours are remapped for the ‘cartoony’ look.
  • The Slidewalk scene is mingling of more GI lighting with forced shading:
    1. AO-like shading is achieved partly by GI solution.
    2. There are also AO shaders where the darkness is emphasised.
    3. Spacer lights are still there.
    4. Apparent soft shadows both from volume spacer lights and AO.
    5. There is still parametric shading but you can see the influence of spacer lights on other surfaces beyond the floor it was originally (ie in the basement scene) intended.
    6. Textures were not posterised or made contrasty. Much of the ‘cartoony’ look is gone.
  • The Sub-Rail scene is dark and moody, which dictated the techniques I ended up using:
    1. AO for dark areas
    2. Lots of volume spacer lights achieving subtle shadows
    3. Use of spacer lights to reveal texture (eg vertical tunnel lights against bricks)
    4. Some textures were posterised to increase contrast (eg entrance wall)
    5. Specifically chosen textures for floor to reduce textural complexity.

Considerations

In my Look and feel post, I pointed at things I should avoid, mainly pointing out at the realism of the renderings. But it seems that it’s hard to avoid given the nature of the tools I’m using.

First, the mapping issue. Laying down a map section as I have done in 3d is much easier to visualise than if I went with the 2d route. I think, given my existing skillsets, it would have taken much longer as well. I think it would have produced a different look, probably closer to the pegs shown in the Look and feel post. But having laid it out in 3d, I had started using 3d lights, GI, AO, etc. And this consideratio is ultimately what causes the look to be more realistic than I originally intended.

In the basement scene, the area is small enough that it’s manageable for me to isolate shading against certain lights, and force parametric shading on certain objects. This workflow is closest to a ‘2d’ approach (with the use of Tiled in mind).

In the Slidewalk scene, the area was too big. There were so many elements that needed considering that it would have taken me loads of time to adjust every section of it.

In the Sub-Rail scene, the scale was reduced, and the scene’s mood was darker, hence it was easier to manage even some parametric shading. Nevertheless, I could see I was moving on to the realistic territory here.

In lookdev, I’m trying to sketch out a look. But if I’m starting to sketch (ie quick renderings), I’ll end up using the most efficient tools. And if those tools are geared to producing realistic renderings, then I have to take another step to ‘dumb it down’. For example, it takes more effort to tweak a posterised texture than simply to use the texture itself. In the area of shading and lighting, that problem balloons to the point where it no longer feels like sketching, especially when many elements are being placed in the scene, and/or if the scene itself is large.

Re-considerations

The question goes back to the 4 bullet points that was supposed to guide me in the lookdev:

  • Dark
  • Bright neon lights
  • Dirty and clean contrasts
  • Feeling of unease in the environment

With these in mind, what re-considerations can I make?

Dark

Certainly, the Slidewalk scene was not as dark as the other scenes. But I didn’t really need everything to be dark. However, the expansiveness of the scene and the flat and dull blueness was overpowering. I think there is no contrast the makes anything pop because everything is lit evenly. There’s no concrete idea of what the sky looks like (whatever is there looking up) because it’s just grey-blue. Perhaps shadowing of tall buildings out of sight? Perhaps shadow movements of overhead cranes or floating cars (if floating cars exist). Also, it must be emphasised that the expansive space helped create the problem of how to light it interestingly. The space caused me to abuse ambient lighting. One lession that I think I’m seeing in the Slidewalk scene is that even if the physical space is big, it can be (should be?) partitioned off using shadows or its inverse, lights. Whatever the case may be, the use of contrast can be used to define major sections within a bigger area.

In the basement scene, the darkness was not literal darkness, but that everything was subdued, and there were only a few sources of light. The littleness of the scene made the dark aspect easy to control, because the partitioning of lightness and darkness was done in small parts.

In the Sub-Rail scene, I think this was the most judicious use of lights given its relative size. I think this scene hits the dark aspect of the game: overall subdued darkness punctuated by slithers of light coming at different angles. In addition, there are volume space lights that partition areas within areas into light and shadow, eg ‘Sub-Rail’ text on car is shown clearly while other parts of the car are in shadow.

I would say that the basement and Sub-Rail scene lent themselves well to the dark aspect, while the the Slidewalk scene was naturally more problematic. And what I’ve learned is that if I’m doing a large space, then I must compartamentalise that space more.

Bright neon lights

In the same manner as above, the more contrast the scene has, the more bright neon lights can be successful. The neon lights give off a sense of civilisation when everything else is hidden in unknown. In the Slidewalk scene, everything seems exposed, so that nothing is really that hidden. This makes it weak even in this respect.

Dirty & clean contrasts

We can think of dirty and clean contrasts in one scene or the comparison of moving from one scene to another. The Sub-Rail scene is a dirty scene, mainly. The dirtiness relates to the brick, the trash, the chairs, and cautionary markings. The cleanliness relates to the lights (perhaps there should be broken lights?) and screens, the ticket machine.

Even in this respect, I think the Slidewalk scene fails, even though there are trash on the floor and the bricks are used as textures. I think there is too much brick everywhere that the dirty/clean contrast can shine. The floor, possibly, contributes to these non-contrastiness. However, the Slidewalk flooring itself, is stark and pops out, which is probably the best thing in the scene in terms of dirty & clean contrast.

Feeling unease

As mentioned, feeling unease might be more to do with gameplay, or even sound, but I think it’s worth a try to challenge myself into thinking about this more clearly in respect to lookdev.

I think the use of propaganda is a way, but that requires specific propaganda messages to come through, which means a specific design. Now,  the question would be whether ‘feeling unease’ can come through in terms of lighting and shading and use of space.

Possible devices to use to cause unease:

  • a flickering bulb
  • pulsating lights (SCAMs?)
  • unseen depths or corridors (Slidewalk scene, big drop)

 

 

 

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Look and feel

Though I’ve already done a bit of art for the game, I’ve honestly been fluffing about this one for quite some time. I didn’t have a definitive look and feel so i’m setting one up now.

I had been discussing with B about how to really get into terms with this. I think my main problem, which includes the art I’ve already made, is that the inspiration came from simply an attraction to a particular artwork (in this case Gray Shuko), but had nothing to do with the theme or the feel of the game itself as I want to depict it.

This is 2400 AD:

Playing it when I was but a babe, I can summarise the overall feeling in several points.

  • Dark
  • Bright neon lights
  • Dirty and clean contrasts
  • Feeling of unease in the environment

Note that while certain feelings are not readily expressible from a lookdev perspective, it helped to focus on the overall emotion/feeling I was having when I played the game, because that is the sort of thing that motivated me to develop CITIZEN. Perhaps what seems unrelated might actually be useful when the time comes. Who knows?

As B pointed out, the darkness comes from the black background, and the ‘neon’ probably comes from the magenta-coloured gui frames.

The ‘clean’ is obvious, because the graphics are simple. But I think I there was a ‘dirtiness’ in line with what was going on as a game, so that there are those contrasting elements, especially when going from one area to another (eg entering a room from exterior).

The feeling of unease is harder to track down, and I think that’s more of a gameplay issue, at least from how it looks like right now. I think however, that it will also inform other design aspects, like how the robots will look like, and perhaps even how sound, or the writing is done.

With those 4 points guiding me I scoured for anything in the web for indicators that may give me an idea how to hammer home those things. The thing was, I didn’t necessarily look for the most beautiful images, because I knew that beautiful images were stuffing up my efforts to have an actual theme to the game.

Good examples and why

Dark, neon, simple shapes. This is one of the prime lookdev reference images. Note that I’m not aiming for pixel art, but rather, aiming for the simplicity in detail, as well as non-assuming design.
The colours are muted in the darkness, and the outlines are aesthetically-pleasing.
From the game ‘The Last Night’; again, not about pixel art — and not even about the sidescroller viewpoint, which is not what CITIZEN is, but rather, the dark mood.
From the game Black Annex, I keep this peg to remind myself of simplicity in rendering. Granted, this is rather austere, but the game (gameplay itself) gives a connection between the look and how the game responds and feels spatially, so that simple renders can be given a lot of life, and other considerations and compromises can be made depending on how the graphics are used.
The space is cozy; the rendering is more in line with my initial art. The outlines are pleasing (again), and the proportions are not so realistic.
Not every location in CITIZEN is in darkness, so in exterior situations, I think this lighting condition, and overall feel, is close to the feel I’m going for. I won’t be able to really represent atmospherics, but the cyan haze is appealing.
Though not dark, I can imagine myself filling in the darkness and the mood and tone. The appeal of this image is of the minimum detail to represent the scene. It looks very game-y, The colours are represented more matter-of-factly; while I prefer grading the artwork to fit the darkness, I keep this peg to remind me that I don’t have to go too overboard with it.

Lighting considerations

In respect to the Good Examples shown above, the most use of lighting was the picture of The Last Night which features area lighting, where one portion of the screen will affect a surface’s diffuse colour. This is fine as long as no shadows are implicitly cast (ie by use of explicit harsh lighting).

Note that even when neons were used in the abovementioned image, the overall effect was still diffused; as it is pixel art, there’s an acceptance of these compromises. The artwork that I have to develop should also have the same acceptability using those compromises.

A good example of area-based lighting. It’s basically a masked colour layer that sits on a particular region, affecting those elements that come underneath it.

Proportional considerations

The image shown on the right is probably the kind of character proportions/shape that I want. This means it is realistically proportioned, but not particularly realistically shaped or accurate.

Bad examples (to avoid)

While appealing in of itself, the rendering is a tad too realistic: reflections, soft and hard shadows which require any character in the scene to be rendered as such. Textures are also too subtle. I would like use gradient of colours more often than textures.
From ShadowRun, this is too realistic.
While I love this game, the rendering — like Fallout — is done with too many hi-freq textures.
Though I had originally imagined a scene in the Hills in the same mood and feel as this, this is the sort of lighting that is not practical to do, so I avoid not only these types of lights, but a pitch black exterior, where the only light will inevitably have to come from point sources.
Too simple to the point where I won’t get my tone. Outlines, when too thick, end up brightening the colours, which is the reverse of what I want to do.
Though a beautiful image, the grading is too biased and ultimately too realistic.
Amazing to look at, nevertheless, even static light sources where pronounced shadows are produced is going to be a problem. However, lights above the reach of the main level (eg player, npc, ground-level env), might be ok, even when animated like this picture. Rain might also be a good thing to explore at a later time.